The Consequences for Breaching the Fire Safety Order

Jul 3, 2024

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Fire safety is a concern for any property owner or manager. This is especially true in places where the public has access to the property, such as commercial and residential buildings. The Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 (FSO) is the primary legislation governing fire safety in England and Wales. This article explores the FSO in detail, the rules surrounding it and the consequences of non-compliance.

What is the Fire Safety Order 2005?

The Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 is commonly referred to as the Fire Safety Order (FSO). It is a piece of legislation designed to simplify and consolidate fire safety laws in England and Wales. It came into force on 1 October 2006, replacing numerous previous fire safety laws and regulations.

The FSO applies to all non-domestic premises in England and Wales. This includes workplaces, commercial establishments, public buildings, and the common areas of residential buildings with multiple occupants. The order places the responsibility for fire safety firmly on the shoulders of the ‘responsible person,’ which could be an employer, owner, landlord, or any person with control over the premises.

Who Enforces the Fire Safety Order?

Enforcement of the FSO is primarily the responsibility of local Fire and Rescue Services. Fire safety officers have the authority to inspect premises to ensure compliance with the FSO. During inspections, they may review fire risk assessments, examine fire safety measures, and check for any potential hazards. If a fire safety officer identifies deficiencies or breaches of the FSO, they can take various actions depending on the severity of the issues found. These actions can range from providing informal advice and issuing notices requiring improvements, to taking legal action, including prosecution, against those who fail to comply.
Fire Safety Order

What Happens if You Don’t Comply with the FSO?

Failure to comply with the Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 (FSO) can result in severe consequences, both legal and financial. This has occurred in numerous cases, including that of Waheed Afzal, a property manager in Slough. Afzal was ordered to pay £22,646.82 following a successful prosecution by the Royal Berkshire Fire Authority due to multiple fire safety breaches. The investigation revealed significant deficiencies, such as inadequate fire detection systems, insufficient emergency lighting, and inadequate fire doors, among other issues. This case highlights several potential repercussions for non-compliance with the FSO.

Fines and Prosecution

One of the most immediate and tangible consequences of failing to comply with the FSO is the risk of prosecution and substantial fines. In Afzal’s case, the court imposed a fine of £16,000, and with additional costs, the total amount reached over £22,000. Such financial penalties can be crippling, particularly for small businesses. The severity of fines can vary depending on the nature and extent of the breaches, but they serve as a significant deterrent and a reminder of the importance of adhering to fire safety regulations. The legal costs associated with defending against prosecution can further exacerbate the financial strain on a business.

Criminal Record

A conviction for fire safety breaches can result in a criminal record for the responsible person. This can have long-lasting implications, affecting both personal and professional aspects of their life. A criminal record can limit employment opportunities, restrict travel to certain countries, and generally tarnish the individual’s reputation. For business owners, it can mean losing the trust and confidence of clients, partners, and the community. The stigma associated with a criminal record underscores the serious nature of fire safety violations and the importance of compliance.

Business Impact

Legal action and the associated fines can severely impact a business’s financial health and reputation. The immediate financial burden can be substantial, but the longer-term consequences can be even more damaging. Businesses found guilty of fire safety breaches may experience a loss of customers and revenue as trust and confidence in their ability to provide a safe environment diminish. Negative publicity surrounding prosecution can deter potential clients and investors, making it challenging to recover from the reputational damage.

Insurance Issues

Insurance Policy for fire safety and securityNon-compliance with fire safety regulations can also have significant implications for insurance coverage. Many insurance policies include clauses that require adherence to fire safety laws and regulations. Failure to comply can invalidate these policies, leaving the business unprotected in the event of a fire. This lack of coverage can be catastrophic, as the financial losses resulting from fire damage can be extensive. Without insurance, a business may struggle to recover, leading to potential closure and loss of livelihoods. Ensuring compliance with the FSO is essential not only for legal reasons but also for maintaining the protection that insurance provides.

Public Safety

Most importantly, failure to comply with fire safety regulations puts lives at risk. The primary purpose of the FSO is to ensure the safety of occupants and visitors in non-domestic premises. Inadequate fire safety measures can lead to devastating consequences in the event of a fire, including injuries or fatalities. Ensuring proper fire safety measures is important for protecting employees, customers, and residents. The tragic potential outcomes of non-compliance highlight the moral and ethical responsibility of the responsible person to prioritise fire safety. Compliance with the FSO helps create a safer environment and demonstrates a commitment to the well-being of all individuals who use the premises.

What are the Rules Around the Fire Safety Order 2005?

The Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 (FSO) sets out several requirements that the responsible person must fulfil. This is to ensure the safety of all individuals who might be affected by a fire on the premises. These responsibilities are designed to create a comprehensive fire safety framework that helps prevent fires and ensures an effective response if one occurs.

Risk Assessments

Conducting regular fire risk assessments is a cornerstone of the FSO. The responsible person must identify potential fire hazards within the premises, evaluate the risks they pose to people, and take steps to reduce or eliminate these risks. This process involves a thorough examination of all areas within the building, considering factors such as sources of ignition, flammable materials, and potential fire spread pathways. By identifying and addressing these hazards, the risk assessment aims to prevent fires from starting in the first place. Additionally, the findings must be documented and reviewed regularly, especially when significant changes occur within the building or its usage.

Fire Safety Measures

Implementing and maintaining adequate fire safety measures is another responsibility under the FSO. This includes installing and maintaining fire extinguishers, fire alarms, emergency lighting, and fire doors. Fire alarms should be strategically placed and regularly tested to ensure they function correctly. Fire extinguishers need to be suitable for different types of fires and accessible to all occupants. Emergency lighting is vital for guiding people to safety during a power outage or in smoke-filled environments. Fire doors, designed to withstand fire and smoke, must be correctly fitted and regularly inspected to ensure they close properly and maintain their integrity during a fire.

Emergency Plans

Fire safety planEstablishing an emergency plan is essential for ensuring that everyone knows what to do in case of a fire. The emergency plan should outline the actions to be taken when a fire is detected, including evacuation procedures, the location of assembly points, and the role of fire marshals. It should also detail how to alert the fire services and ensure that occupants, including those with disabilities, can evacuate safely. Regular fire drills are necessary to ensure that everyone understands the plan and can execute it efficiently under stress. This practice helps identify any weaknesses in the plan and allows for continuous improvement.


Providing fire safety training to staff is a key aspect of the FSO. Employees should be familiar with the fire safety measures in place and know how to use fire extinguishers, raise the alarm, and assist in evacuations. Training should cover the specific fire risks associated with their roles and the procedures to follow in an emergency. Regular fire safety training sessions and refreshers are essential to keep fire safety knowledge current and ensure that new employees are quickly brought up to speed. This preparation not only enhances individual safety but also contributes to a coordinated and effective response to a fire incident.


Regular maintenance of fire safety equipment is crucial to ensure that all measures remain functional and effective. This includes routine checks and servicing of fire alarms, extinguishers, emergency lighting, and fire doors. Fire alarms should be tested weekly, and any faults should be addressed immediately. Fire extinguishers need annual servicing and periodic refilling or replacement as required. Emergency lighting should be tested monthly, and fire doors should be inspected regularly to ensure they close and latch correctly. Keeping detailed records of maintenance activities is important for demonstrating compliance and identifying recurring issues that need addressing.


In premises that are shared by multiple businesses or organisations, cooperation and coordination between responsible persons are vital. Each entity must communicate and collaborate to ensure that fire safety measures are consistent and comprehensive across the entire building. This involves sharing information about fire risks, coordinating fire drills, and ensuring that emergency plans are aligned. Effective cooperation ensures that all occupants are protected, and the fire safety strategy is cohesive. Therefore, reducing the risk of gaps or conflicts in fire safety procedures.

fire risk assessment, fire prevention

The Need for a Fire Risk Assessment

A fire risk assessment is an evaluation of a building, its activities, and the likelihood of a fire occurring. It is a fundamental component of the Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 (FSO). It is important to identify potential fire hazards, evaluate the risk to people, and implement appropriate measures to mitigate these risks. The assessment helps ensure that the building and its occupants are as safe as possible from the threat of fire.

Identifying Fire Hazards

Conducting a fire risk assessment involves several steps. The first step is identifying fire hazards. This means scrutinising the building for potential sources of ignition, such as electrical equipment, heating systems, and open flames. By pinpointing these hazards, the responsible person can understand the specific fire risks associated with the premises and take targeted action to stop them.

Identifying People At Risk

The next step is identifying the people at risk. This involves determining who might be present in the building and vulnerable in the event of a fire. Special attention should be given to those who may require additional assistance during an evacuation, such as individuals with disabilities, elderly people, and children. Understanding who is at risk allows for the development of tailored evacuation plans and ensures that everyone can escape safely in an emergency.

Fire Risk Evaluation

Evaluating and reducing risk is the heart of the fire risk assessment. This step requires assessing the likelihood of a fire starting and the potential consequences if it does. It involves considering the identified hazards and at-risk individuals, as well as the building’s design, construction, and existing fire safety measures. Once the risks are evaluated, the responsible person must implement measures to reduce or eliminate them. This can include improving fire detection and alarm systems, installing fire suppression equipment and providing fire safety training for staff.

Fire Assessment Records

Recording findings is a vital part of the fire risk assessment process. Documenting the assessment’s results and the measures taken is not only a legal requirement but also a practical way to track progress and ensure accountability. The records should include details of the identified hazards, the people at risk, the evaluation of the risks, and the actions taken to mitigate them. Keeping comprehensive records helps demonstrate compliance with the FSO and provides a valuable reference for future assessments and safety audits.

Using OHEAP for Your Fire Risk Assessments

Conducting a comprehensive fire risk assessment requires expertise and experience. This is where professional fire safety services like OHEAP come into play. OHEAP is a reputable company that specialises in fire safety solutions, including fire risk assessments. There are several benefits of using OHEAP for your fire safety. 

Firstly, OHEAP’s team comprises fire safety experts who are well-versed in the FSO and have extensive experience in conducting thorough fire risk assessments. By using OHEAP, businesses can ensure they meet all legal requirements and avoid the severe consequences of non-compliance. Secondly, OHEAP provides customised fire safety solutions based on the specific needs and risks of each property. OHEAP also offers ongoing support and advice to help businesses maintain high standards of fire safety. Lastly, professionals like OHEAP give property owners and managers peace of mind, knowing that their fire safety measures are in capable hands.

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